The OLIVETTE was also a transformed commercial steamer. All ships were constructed in 1943 by the Consolidated Steel Corporation before being decommissioned in 1946. The accused in this case is an officer in the line of the United States Naval Reserve Force, and as such he is on the same basis as an officer in the line of the Regular Navy, and therefore no differentiation need be made between the two in the discussion of the case at bar. After his idea was accepted, the port authorities voted funds to purchase the steamer Falcon. This is the USNS Comfort next to a Nimitz-class supercarrier, the biggest war ship in the world. While, therefore, rank is primarily established with those who are entitled to command with a view to determining the order in which they are to command, it is necessary to give to the grades created in other corps a rank which shall either be the same with the rank of the officer of the line or which by relation to the rank of the officer of the line shall entitle those holding it to such attention and respect as is accorded to officers of the line of the rank to which it relates or is assimilated. Sanctuary remained in Hunters Point Naval Shipyard until late January 1973, when she put to sea for two weeks of refresher training. 24. I & II, The Invasion of Southern France: Aerology and Amphibious Warfare, Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments, Irregular Enemies and the Essence of Strategy, Islam: A Primer - Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, Japanese Interrogation Of Prisoners Of War, Japanese Naval and Merchant Shipping Losses - WWII, Japanese Operational Aircraft CinCPOA 105-45, Japanese Operational Aircraft CinCPOA 105-45 Revised, Japanese Radio Communications and Radio Intelligence CinCPOA 5-45, Japanese - Smithsonian War Background Study, Journal of the Disasters in Afghanistan, 1841-2, Kosovo Naval Lessons Learned During Operation Allied Force, Lost of Flight 19 Official Accident Reports, Landing Operations Doctrine, USN, FTP-167, Appendix A: Convention For the Adaption to Maritime War of the Principles of the Geneva Convention - X Hague, 1907, Appendix B: Convention Concerning the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in Maritime War - XIII Hague, 1907, Appendix C: Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick, Appendix D: Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded, Sick, and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea of August 12, 1949, Appendix E: Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of August 12, 1949, Appendix F: Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of August 12, 1949, Letter from President Harry S. Truman to Secretary of the Navy James V. Forrestal regarding the Five-Star Rank, Lengthy Deployment: The Jeannette Expedition In Arctic Waters, List of Authorized Abbreviations for Use in Bureau of Naval Personnel Messages (1958), List of Patrol Squadron Deployments to Korea During the War, Living Conditions in the 19th Century US Navy, Log of the trip of the president to the Casablanca Conference 9-31 January, 1943, Loss of Flight 19 Official Accident Reports, LSU Squadron Two Thanksgiving Dinner November 22 1951, Magic Background of Pearl Harbor Vol. Although without the public glamor of her earlier benevolences, the MISSOURI continued her life saving efforts as a hospital ship during our war with Spain. For the next 15 years, she was berthed with the Atlantic Reserve Fleet: on 1 September 1961 her name was stricken from the Navy list, and she was transferred to the Maritime Administration for berthing with the National Defense Reserve Fleet. So it was to familiar surroundings that I sailed on the Relief a few days after joining her, as she was ordered to Magdalena Bay on March 24 to join the Great White Fleet for transfer of hospital patients. On 8 March 1967, Sanctuary departed San Francisco for the Far East. A. G. Army, 30, par. The reorganization and transfer of the Western Flotilla to the Navy helped to solidify this fact. A. G. Army, 27, par. Investigators from neutral countries like Spain were allowed to inspect hospital ships to confirm that Article Four wasn't being violated. L., sec. It was then recommended that the following provision be enacted into law: "That the President of the United States be and he is hereby, authorized to establish and from time to time modify, as the needs of the service may require, a classification of the vessels of the Navy, and to formulate appropriate rules governing assignments to command of vessels and squadrons.". She arrived at Mayport, Florida, her new home port, on 14 December 1973 and remained there for the duration of the year. On this leg of the voyage the refrigeration broke down, with consequent spoilage of frozen meat stores. Departing San Francisco Bay 22 March 1908, Relief met the fleet in Magdalena Bay, Mexico, embarking patients for return to San Francisco. She arrived at Pearl Harbor four days after the Japanese acceptance of surrender terms and, on 22 August, continued on to the Far East to assist in the repatriation of former POWs. John Englis was completed in December 1896 and was placed on the New York–Maine route, in which she is said to have been well patronized. 62, USS Quincy CA39, Astoria CA34 & Vincennes CA44 War Damage Report No. The Navy now says it will keep its hospital ships in service — and even plans to make about $6.4 million in improvements to the Mercy, according to a fiscal year 2019 budget submission. 51 (1865) Announcing Death President Abraham Lincoln, General Order No. In fact, the commanding officer disobeyed the lawful order of his superior officer and ostensibly justified his act upon the lack of sufficient and reliable information upon which to base such a report. Both ships were converted from San Clemente-class supertankers. 370 (1889) Copies of Books to the Navy Department Library, General Order No. 57, Wartime Diversion of US Navy Forces in Response to Public Demands for Augmented Coastal Defense-CNA, Wartime Instructions for United States Merchant Vessels 1942, Washington Navy Yard: History of the Naval Gun Factory, 1883-1939, Washington Navy Yard - Pay Roll of Mechanics and Labourers, c1819-1820, WAVE QUARTERS D STATION RULES FOR LIFE AT D, [UPDATED] Washington Navy Yard Station Log November 1822 - December 1889, The Story Behind Names of Different Ranks, History of Warrant Officers in the US Navy, Women's Uniform Regulations, Yeoman (F), US Naval Reserve Force, 1918, Women's Winter Uniform Regulations, Yeoman (F), US Naval Reserve Force, 1919, World War I British and German Naval Messages (1918), World War II Invasion of Normandy 1944 Interrogation of Generalleutnant Rudolf Schmetzer, Yangtze River Patrol and Other US Navy Asiatic Fleet Activities in China, Yemen: Civil War and Regional Intervention. There was extensive damage to the ship's superstructure. The Relief approached Magdalena Bay on the night of March 27. They were among the first ships to be able to receive casualties directly by helicopter and were the first fully air conditioned ships in the U.S. Navy. 27, USS Chincoteague AVP24 War Damage Report No. It will be noted that in the designation of command for the classification of ships, the titles, commodore, captain, etc., were used. Naval Armed Guard Service in World War II, Naval Gun Factory (Washington Navy Yard) Facilities Data: World War II, Naval Memorial Service, Casting Flowers on the Sea in Honor of the Naval Dead, Naval Transformation: Background and Issues for Congress, Naval Yarns by Captain Bartlett [manuscript], Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program, Navy Aegis Cruiser and Destroyer Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress, Navy and Defense Reform: A Short History and Reference Chronology, Navy and Marine Corps Awards Manual [Rev. 520 x 71.6 x 24. 16 and 17 October 2020 Gen., 571) hereinbefore quoted, where he stated that the medical officer in command was not exercising a command in the line but a command in his own staff corps as the crew was a merchant crew and therefore he could legally command. No wonder these two ships have become a symbol of hope around the globe whenever disaster strikes. squadron so that it would apply not only to a medical officer, but also to a chaplain, professor of mathematics, etc. 112 (1869) Sea Service of Officers to be Three Years, General Order No. The Athenian Navy had a ship named Therapia, and the Roman Navy had a ship named Aesculapius, their names indicating that they may have been hospital ships. Upon activation, the ships are boarded by US Navy medical personnel and loaded with medical supplies and equipment. Commander * * *, the commanding officer, testified (p. 15, Record, 4.AA): "At 12.20, the time I went to see Mr. * * *, it was very foggy and thick." During the First World War, many hospital ships were attacked, both on purpose or by mistaken identity. The husbands and sons followed; and in the last boat, the officers of the doomed ship. 1. (Dig. In 2006, Mercy became part of a larger, ongoing mission: the Pacific Partnership. Here I often saw my old shipmates, Doctors Strine and Trible and Captain Walter Sharp, all of whom had retired and lived in the Capitol. "Q. Particularly rough weather was encountered on the trip from Samoa to Auckland. The original bill of sale indicated the ship also contained asbestos in the early 1990s. 1529. Not only was this fledgling hospital ship kept busy with her patients, but she was also pressed into service as a store ship carrying medical supplies, ice, and provisions to the ships of the river fleet. The Blood of HeroesI cared for each as though my brother.No time to cry, must tend to another, and another....Time has passed; I still recallYour courage, your struggle and your fall.Rest in peace, your war now done;How brief your life—as the setting sun....(Helen DeCrane Roth, ’68). Her engines were removed, the deck was housed over, and other necessary facilities were installed. It is also necessary that the officers of such corps, being gentlemen who render important and valuable services, should be brought into such relations with the officers of the line that their dignity shall be preserved and the proper order of a military establishment maintained. They were the center of our existence. On the 10th, she arrived at Da Nang, South Vietnam. A junior cannot shed himself from all responsibility for an act committed by himself under the protection of an order issued to him by his superior if the order itself was illegal. In 1859, the threat of yellow fever, an epidemic brought on by seamen returning from foreign ports, led to the first floating hospital in America. This story, repeated in wardroom and forecastle throughout the fleet made a hospital ship "the most heavily gunned in the Navy." She was captured by the Union gunboat Mound City and almost immediately prepared as a floating hospital for the casualties of the North. The biggest hospital ship sunk by either mine or torpedo in the First World War was HMHS Britannic, the sister of Olympic and the ill-fated Titanic. She was the sister ship of USS Mercy (AH-4) but the two ships were not of a ship class. After capsizing in port in 1941, the ship was again refloated and renamed SS Agwileon. After her Navy wartime service, she was pressed into Army transport work, sailing between the West Coast and the Philippines. When the storm abated, the ship had been driven far off the beaten track. 74 (1908) Establishing Ship Post Offices, General Order No. Thus it will be seen, at the time the orders to the commanding officer and to the accused were issued, neither the law nor the regulations contemplated the commanding officer an officer of the staff corps exercising military command in the line or in other staff corps, or, in other words, Commander __________, exercising military command over the accused. Over the years, the hospital ships have deployed to several disaster-response missions and humanitarian missions, but few fully utilized the embarked MTF to its 500- or 1,000-bed capability. She was readily accepted. compatible with their rank and grade did not go so far as to authorize the assignment of a construction officer to duty as a medical officer of a station; similarly, it did not authorize the assignment of a construction officer to line duties, although in assigning him to construction duties line officers might be assigned to duty under him. Continuing to evacuate wounded from the Philippines, Hope arrived Subic Bay 16 February 1945, just as paratroopers landed on Corregidor. Hospital ships are children of necessity, mothered and fathered by wars. Form 143 in every respect and submit the same to commanding officer over your signature at 8 a.m., 12 noon, and 8 p.m. Although these floating hospitals embark … It is pertinent to note that the orders to both Commander ________ and Lieut. Monitor and the C.S.S. Enough stores were taken aboard for a crew and 200 patients for three months. 135 (1911) Definitions of Well-known Naval Terms, General Order No. Register now at (Rec., p. 40, A6.) It was decided by the head command to detach the Relief from the Fleet in Sydney, and send her to Manila for repairs. Accordingly, Relief was commissioned at Mare Island Navy Yard 6 February 1908, Surgeon Charles F. Stokes, USN, in command. Arriving on the 22nd, she embarked more ex-POWs; then loaded military personnel rotating back to the United States and steamed for Naha. The orderly returned, stating that Mr. * * * would not sign the report at that time. Sanctuary earned eleven battle stars for service in the Vietnam War. J. They were sunk by either torpedo, mine or surface attack. Article 2914 of the Navy Regulations, 1913, provides: "A hospital ship, being assimilated to a naval hospital on shore, shall be commanded by a naval medical officer not below the grade of surgeon, such commanding officer being detailed by the Navy Department. On 2 April, she joined the 7th Fleet at Subic Bay. After several weeks of preparation, she got underway, in mid-September 1973, for a three-month goodwill cruise to South America. After nearly 11 years in reserve at Suisun Bay, Repose was recommissioned on 16 October 1965 for service in Vietnam. Alabama by U.S.S. Recollections of Lieutenant Commander William Leide, Recollections of Lieutenant Wilton Wenker and Lieutenant Elby Concerning the Crossing of the Rhine River in 1945, Recollections of USS Pampanito's rescue of prison ship survivors by Lieutenant Commander Landon Davis, Recollections of Vice Admiral Alan G. Kirk Concerning the Crossing of the Rhine River in 1945, Register of Patients at Naval Hospital Washington DC 1814, Register of USN & USMC Officer Personnel 1801-1807 [pdf], Regulations for the Information of Officers On Neutrality Duty in Connection With the Visits of Belligerent Vessels of War [1916], Regulations For Powder Magazines and Shell Houses 1874, Regulations Governing the Uniform of Commissioned Officers 1897, Reincarnation of John Paul Jones The Navy Discovers Its Professional Roots, Remarks on Protection of a Convoy by Extended Patrols, Remarks on Submarine Tactics Against Convoys, Reminiscences of Seattle Washington Territory and the U. S. Sloop-of-War Decatur, Reminiscences of Seattle Washington Territory and the US Sloop-of-War Decatur During the Indian War of 1855-56, Report by the Special Subcommittee on Disciplinary Problems in the US Navy, Reports of Arica, Peru Earthquake from USS Powhatan and USS Wateree, Resolution of the Continental Congress, 11 December 1775, Resolution of the Continental Congress, 25 November 1775, Hyman G. Rickover's Promotion to Admiral [H.A.S.C. The experience of the Relief suggests that one of the most important changes of all has been the reversion of over-all command of hospital ships to the trained, responsible and experienced officers of the line. 58, Summary of War Damage to U. S. Battleships, Carriers, Cruisers and Destroyers 17 October, 1941 to 7 December, 1942, USS Birmingham CL62 War Damage Report No. Kearsarge - 19 Jun 1864, Selected Sources on the German Battleship Bismarck, The Sinking of the German Battleship Bismarck as Described in the B.d.U. Unknowingly, this small group proved to be the pioneers of a Navy Nurse Corps which would be organized some fifty years later. 3. 47 (1935) Precedence of Forces in Parades, General Orders for the Regulation of the Navy Yard Washington, D.C. - 1833-1850, German Commanders Wilhelm Keitel and Alfred Jodl on the Invasion of Normandy in 1944, German Report on the Allied Invasion of Normandy, German Submarine Activities on the Atlantic Coast, Glossary of U.S. She was commissioned in the Navy the day after Christmas, 1862. From 1946 to 1950 she was in custody of the War Department. Her first humanitarian missions both happened in 1994, keeping her busy helping our Haitian and Cuban immigrants looking to come to America. Hope arrived in Leyte Gulf 7 November, to care for casualties and evacuated them to Hollandia. Also, it has been said that "there are many miles of interpretation, but they are of little use; common sense is the best guide." Relief was built for the Maine Steamship Company in 1895–96 by the Delaware River Iron Ship Building and Engine Works of Chester, Pennsylvania as the passenger ship John Englis. ", Insofar as the law at present stands as regards medical officers, the above-quoted act of March 3, 1899, is governing and therefore restricts them from exercising command in the line or other staff corps unless it is repugnant in its application to the act of March 3, 1901 (31 Stat., 1153), wherein it is, provided: "That the President of the United States be, and he is hereby, authorized to establish and from time to time to modify, as the needs of the service may require, a classification of the vessels of the Navy, and to formulate appropriate rules governing assignments to command of vessels and squadrons.". Ordered to return to the U.S. west coast, Relief departed Cavite 14 November 1908 but suffered serious damage in a typhoon on the night of 18 and 19 November. As commanding officer of a battleship - yes; of a hospital ship - no." 12, 14, and 15; also Davis Mil. That Congress by giving relative rank to staff officers did not intend thereby to extend to them military command, additionally provide that "the relative rank given by the provisions of this chapter to officers of the Medical, Pay, and Engineering Corps shall confer no authority to exercise military command." almost everyone sick . She was later named USS Repose. Modernization had given her a heliport, three x-ray units, a blood bank, an artificial kidney machine, ultrasonic diagnostic equipment, a recompression chamber and other modern equipment, medical, culinary, laundry, etc., to supplement her 20 wards and four operating rooms. A sister ship, Horatio Hall, was also constructed for the company at about the same time. Their special status has been internationally recognised under the second Geneva Convention of 1906 and the Hague Convention of 1907. Only two of her patients died. It must be noted that the word "appropriate" is used by Congress in the language of the statute. 99 (1914) Prohibition in the Navy, General Order No. After being refloated and repaired, she was placed back in service as SS Yucatán in June. Their passenger accommodations, which included dining salons on the upper deck, were said to be "very fine". (25 Op. Law, p. On 11 June 1862, she received her first patient, a seaman from the gunboat Benton, a victim of cholera. The Relief was built in 1896 for use as a passenger and cargo ship along the New England Coast. She arrived at League Island on 1 March and was decommissioned on 15 August. There was the usual griping, that’s part of being at sea, but never at or because of the patients. Eng., 205. Commander * * *, a medical officer, ordered the accused to sign Form N. Nav. The MPA lost the suit and in 2001, Project Life was awarded a five-year lease at Baltimore’s North Locust Point Marine Terminal. On Navy leadership: You have embarked on an honorable career and should often remind yourself of the special meaning that this service entails. During the next month she shuttled between Saipan and Okinawa, often under attack despite her distinctive markings. The Judge Advocate General of the Navy, in an opinion dated 18 January, 1915 (5038-20:1), in rendering an opinion on the effect of this law, held: "This provision was very restricted in its scope, limiting the detail of line officers under staff officers to the manufacturing and repair departments of navy yards and naval stations. In arriving at the meaning of a statute where the proper construction is doubtful, it is always proper to consider the history of the statute and the different steps taken in the enactment of the law as disclosed by the legislative records; also to look into the conditions surrounding the subject matter of the legislation at the time the act was passed and the situation as it existed and as it was pressed upon the attention of Congress. Gen. Paul Friedrichs. Gen., 571), discussed the provisions of the law of March 3, 1901, in connection with the command of a hospital ship of the Navy and held: "In the consideration of the various statutes here involved it may be suggested that the act of March 3, 1901, does not expressly repeal prior laws on the subject, and that section 1488, R. S., which declared that the relative rank of officers of the Medical Corps shall not authorize them to 'exercise military command' and the act of March 3, 1899, which abolished the relative rank but provided that the actual rank conferred upon medical officers should not entitle them to 'command in the line or other staff corps,' are still in force. 143 for the noon position of the ship a disobedience of a lawful order such as would make it a military offense and the accused punishable therefor; second, did Commander * * *, an officer in the Medical Corps of the United States Navy and commanding officer of the U.S.S. Comfort operated throughout WWII with a Navy crew and Army medical personnel. 381.) ), Documents, Official and Unofficial, Relating to the Capture and Destruction of the Frigate Philadelphia at Tripoli - 1850, Documents Related to the Resignation of the German Commander in Chief, Navy, Grand Admiral Raeder and to the Decommissioning of the German High Seas Fleet, DoD Rules for Military Commissions - 2006, Elementary Map and Aerial Photograph Reading, Emancipation Proclamation, Navy general Order No. ), Officers of the United States Navy shall be known as officers of the line and officers of the staff. Proceeding via Okinawa, Sanctuary arrived off Wakayama in Task Group 56.5 on 11 September; then waited as minecraft cleared the channels. The first disaster relief came in the wake of the 2004 tsunami as Operation Unified Assistance. Both ships had experienced long periods of inactivity: the Repose because she was not needed in a peace-time Navy, but the Relief because of the sharp controversy over the question of command, not only of medical personnel but of the ship itself, which arose between the two large navy departments - Navigation and Medical Staff, resulting in a five year delay in commissioning after the Navy acquired her from the War Department following the Spanish American War. When asked, "47Q. As I toured this imposing ship, so well supplied with the latest medical and surgical equipment and staffed by the Navy's most experienced officers, I could not help comparing her with the Hospital Ship Relief #1, on which I served as Assistant Surgeon when she joined the Great White Fleet of Theodore Roosevelt in Pacific waters over a half-century before. Comfort was placed in reserve in September 1919, decommissioned in 1921, and sold in April 1925. She was commissioned on 20 June 1945, Commander John M. Paulsson, USNR, in command of the ship; Captain Oscar Davis, MC, USN, in charge of the medical department. The weather became increasingly threatening, and on reaching San Bernardino Straits Sailing Master LeCain advised that the ship "lay to" in the lee of the islands before proceeding to the open Sea. The Comfort’s … She got underway for the central Pacific 4 February 1946, arriving Pearl Harbor on 12 February for duty until 2 April when she returned to California. In 1989, the Navy sold ex-Sanctuary for $10 to a group called Life International. She continued to operate off the I Corps Tactical area, the northern provinces of South Vietnam; and, for the most part, rotated between stations, such as Da Nang, Phu Bai, Chu Lai, and Dong Ha, every two to four days as needed by the marines fighting ashore. 11,141 tons. USS Solace (AH-5) Launched in 1927 as the passenger ship SS Iroquois, USS Solace was acquired by the US Navy and commissioned as a hospital ship on August 9th, 1941.

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